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THMG101 – Chemistry Nomenclature

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In this episode, Bob & Mike explain how the process of naming chemicals affects their overall chemistry and our response to them.

  1. 101 nomenclature
    1. There are rules to this game! why is there a set of rules.?
      1. the most basic compound we can think of water. H20. Think of all the ways we
      2. could name H20
        1. dihydrogen monoxide
        2. dihydrogen oxide
        3. hydrogen oxygen hydrogen
        4. duel hydrogen peroxide
          1. this is 4 of about 10 to 20 different ways to name just water, 3 molecules 2 of them the same
          2. so a systematic approach was need.
        5. I just want to say that as these rules stay fairly consistent for smaller molecules and get really complex as the complexity of the molecules gets bigger. Were going to stick with some of the basics
        6. We will also hit some of the functional groups as well. Go over what they are and what they mean to us.
    2. inorganic rules
    3. Let’s start off with the small stuff. only a few little friends together
      1. so first we have to figure out how we’re lining up the molecules to even start to name this.
      2. Let’s take salt for example.
        1. Specifically table salt that has a Na mollicute and a Cl molecule. this is called a binary compound, more specifically a metallic binary.
        2. Binary meaning 2 and metallic means that it contains a metal.
          1. The entire reason for these elements to come together is because they are trying to share an electron. so there will be one molecule that become more positive and one that is more negative.
          2. When NA and CL come together the chlorine takes from the na making the Na positive and the Cl negative
        3. We will then put all the positives first. So we would have a formula of NaCl
          ok first step down. now we can start to put a name on this bad boy.
        4. so the positive charge is named first and that would be just sodium
        5. now we start to get to cool sounding names. and to accomplish this we are going to use suffix and prefix.
          • These are letters that go on either before or after the word to give the word a specific meaning.
          • kind of like un put in front of happy would be unhappy
          • or able after teach would be teachable
          • right chemistry does the same thing to try to describe what’s going on
          • and for this single oxidative state of chlorine it would be cloride. making NACL sodium chloride
        6. how about something a little bigger. Let say we have a metal and more than one elements AKA a polyatomic ion.
          1. don’t freak out just break down polyatomic ion. poly equals many atomic deals with atoms and ion is the electrically charged version of the atom.
          2. then we find the metal. call the metal whatever it is.
            1. so if there is a BaSo4 could be barium sulfate.
          3. next we have to name the group of nonmetals.
            • and these have a prefix already associated with them. Long before any kind of true naming system came around they named these groups of atoms that are commonly found together.
            • The list of these polyatomic ions is huge but just come quick examples that we see a lot,
            – ammonium ion NH4
            – perchlorate ClO4
            – cholarate ClO3
            – Clorite co2
            – Hypochlorite ClO
      3. So thats a taste of how chemicals are names. Its gets very involved and is truly beyond anything we need know
      4. What is good to know are two basics. The fundamentals of organic compounds and then functional groups
        1. what is organic chemistry
          1. study of carbon based chemicals
        2. Why is organic chemistry so important
          1. we are organic chemistry.
          2. Organic molecules like non organic can become complicated fast. we going to cover the basic or the foundational word in this show.
          3. Since organic chemistry is study of carbon we name things based upon their number or carbons. so there is a standard word that give us an idea of the largest consecutive carbon chain.
            • Meth is once carbon so example methane has one carbon and 4 hydrogen.
            • eth has 2 like ethane
            • prop is 3 carbons
            • But is 4 carbons
            • pent is 5
            • hex is 6
            • hept is 7
            • oct is 8
            • non is 9
            • dec is 10.
            • These comprise the basic building blocks of names.
    4. now that we have our foundation we need other information. just the number of carbons does not tell us much about the atom. ethane and ethyne both have the same number of carbons but are vastly different chemicals.
      • so we take that foundation and we had the following to it.
      – ane indicated that there is only single bonds from carbon to carbon.
      • propane is a example 4 carbons
      – ENE indicated that somewhere is a double bond between 2 carbons.
      • ethene is a 2 carbon with one double bond between them
      – yne indicates a triple bond
      • ethyne would indicate a 2 carbon molecule with a triple bond.
      – AKA acetylene
      – why is knowing a triple bond or even a double bond is important.

      1. Because double and triple bonds are energetic
        1. They react and can drive a reaction
        2. They can initiate a reaction
        3. Store lots of energy so they have nots of energy to give to the system
        4. ATP the molecule that is created inside the mytocongrea of our cells is literally the molecule that fuels our metabolism.
        5. Its stands for adenosine triphosphate. It has 3 double bonded phosphorus to oxygen bonds. These bonds although are stable but also store energy.
        6. That means the cell can produce it in a central place and delivered to various parts of the cell that need refueling.
        7. HCN is blocks the cells ability to produce ATP and therefore killing the cell of its ability to function.
      2. Let’s take a walk down chemserty lane here for a moment. We going to walk through the naming rules. Do you have to know this. No. Do you have to memorize this? NO. so why are we doing this
        1. Because we’re assholes,
        2. Yes but not the reason we doing it
          Because it’s good to know that there are rules. Because you might in a position one day where you either have a very scientific name of a chemical and the being able to decipher what it is and looks like might help you.
          So we’re just going to walk through the basic rules and if you ever need them you know they’re out there and can easy find them.
          First find the parent chain. This is going to be the longest carbon chain in the group. So look for a carbon that is stuck to as many other carbons as possible.
          From there look at all the groups that are attached to that parent chain. There are all sorts of rules on how to name them and give them positions.
          If you have ever wondered what the numbers in a chemical name are, this is where they come from
          Let’s take for example 4-ethyl-2-methylhexane
          Describe what we have.
      1. So I know look at the name and i know that my parent group is hexane. It is my largest carbon chain. Hex meaning 6. So a 6 carbon chain.
      2. If i turn around and label each carbon on long chain i can now reference each one.
        1. So 4-ethyl-2-methylhexane on the 4th carbon is an ethyl group
          Or a 2 carbon chain
        2. And 4-ethyl-2-methylhexane on the second carbon is a methane or one carbon chain.
      3. If this chemical had a second methyl group it would just be next to the 2. So if there was also a methyl group on the 5th carbon then it would be 4-ethyl-2,5-dimethylhexane
      4. Things start to get a little more complicated when double bonds and triple bonds and functional groups are present. But the general rule still applies. The number indicates where in the chain you will find these groups
    5. What is a functional group
      1. Is responsible for more student suicides that bullying.
      2. Ok bad organic chemistry joke but seriously the functional group is a specific group of atoms or types of bond within a larger molecule. These grouping are responsible for a lot of the characteristics of the chemical and the types of chemical reactions that they perform. here
      3. So there kind of important
      4. Ya, like they are organic chemistry
      5. So there are these small groups of chemicals that seem to make there way into lots and lots of parent chemicals. Buy looking at these functional groups we can get a good idea of how they might react.
      6. More importantly we can have a general idea of toxicity, solubility, flammability. But note, just a general idea. There are always exception to the rule.
      7. We going to do a show on the major functional groups that are out there so.
      8. Don’t get too hung up on them. Just know that they are named, and they each have there own way of being placed into the name of a chemical that contain that functional group
      9. Some have suffix at the end like chemicals that end in ol have an alcohol functional group.
        1. Propanol or ethanol
        2. Ethers just have the name ether at the end
        3. Diethyl ether
          1. Which by the way just means two ethanes contacted by a single oxygen
      10. Or how about good old chemicals that have a name that ends in anal.
      11. An aldehyde is a carbon chain with an oxygen double bonded to the last/first carbon. Use the appropriate prefix for carbon chain and use the suffix -anal. No position number is required.
        1. Ex: CH3CH(=O) is named ethanol.
        2. Ane or anal often refer to Aldehydes or CHO group
        3. In which that o is double bonded to the carbon
        4. So the simplest and most common is methanal
        5. Also known as formaldehyde
    6. Bob’s favorite are chemicals that end in one
    7. These would be ketones
    8. Bob why are they your favorite
    9. These are similar to aldehydes but the o is attached to a carbon that is attached to only other carbons. So a double bond in the middle carbons.
      1. Really important in biochemistry
  2. This is just scratching the surfaces so with so much out there and so many different ways of breaking it down how can I possible identify all the components.
    You can’t. But at least these big names won’t be so mysterious to you.
  3. There is actually rules for this called IUPAC

http://www.chem.uiuc.edu/GenChemReferences/nomenclature_rules.html

The Hazmat Guys

Author: The Hazmat Guys


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