THMG274 – It Depends…Part 1

In this series of shows we will be tackling something that is typically an Operations concern. Behavior modeling and exploring how it questions the age-old answer, “It Depends?!?”

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1.    A.  Stress    

Container stress is caused by

a.     Thermal energy

b.     Chemical energy

c.      Mechanical energy

2.     Thermal energy — Excessive heat or cold could cause intolerable expansion, contraction, weakening (loss of temper), or consumption of the container and its parts

a.  Thermal stress may increase internal pressure and reduce container shell integrity, resulting in sudden failure

b.     Thermal stress may result from the heating or cooling of the container

c.      A container undergoing excessive heat may be

i.       Extremely close to flames
ii.      Undergoing the operation of a relief device
iii.    Making noises of expansion or contraction
iv.    Subject to changing environmental conditions (such as increased temperature)

d.     A container succumbing to cold may exhibit

i.      Excessive frosting
ii.      Visible cold vapors (white clouds)
iii.    Changes in steel structure (smooth to grainy)
iv.    Pools of cold liquid

3.     Chemical energy — Uncontrolled reactions/interactions of the container and its contents

a.    Chemical reactions/interactions could result in the following

i.       Sudden or long-term deterioration of the container
ii.      Excess heat and/or pressure, causing deterioration of the container
iii.    Corrosive or other incompatible interactions between the hazardous materials and the container material
iv.    Visible corrosion or other degradation of container surfaces, including
(a)       Bulging
(b)      Cracking
(c)       Popping noises
v.     The interior of a container may experience chemical stress with no visible indication from the exterior

4.     Mechanical energy — Physical application of energy could result in container/attachment damage

a.    Mechanical stress may

i.       Change the shape of the container (crushing)
ii.     Reduce the thickness of the container surface (abrading or scoring)
iii.    Crack or produce gouges
iv.    Unfasten (sheer) or disengage valves and piping, or penetrate the container wall

b.     Common causes of mechanical stress include

i.       Collision
ii.      Impact
iii.    Internal over-pressure

c.      Clues of mechanical stress include

i.       Physical damage
ii.      The mechanism of injury (forces placed on the container)

iii.    Operation of relief devices

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